Rosaceae: Rose family General characters, floral formula, floral diagram, economic importance and common species


Rosaceae Rose Family


Table Of Content:
  • Diagnostic Characters of Rosaceae
  • Floral Formula and Floral Diagram of Rosaceae
  • Economic Importance of Rosaceae i.e. Fruits, Ornamental Plants of Rosaceae and wood
  • Commercial and Medicinal uses of Rosaceae
  • Pattern of Distribution of Rosaceae
  • Common Species of Rosaceae
Diagnostic characters of Rosaceae
Habit: Annual Perennial or everlasting; shrubs, herbs, and trees.
Roots: Basically two types of roots are; fibrous taproot, fibrous adventitious roots.
Stem: Herbaceous or woody, hard; the stem is covered with thorns (prickles).
Leaves: Petiolate; alternate; Stipulate (adnate): simple or compound (pinnate type).
Inflorescence: Mostly cymose sometimes racemose, some are solitary.
Flower: Pedicillate; bracteate: actinomorphic cut from any axis; Regular; complete; hermaphrodite both sex organs are present on the same plant; mostly perigynous, but sometimes epigenous.
Calyx or sepals: 5 or 4 calyx: free. In some cases, epicalyx of bracteoles is present.
Corolla or petals: 5 or multiple of 5 corolla or petals; free; imbricate.
Stamens: in numerous stamens; lice, in some cases, united by their filaments; versatile.
Carpel: 1 to various carpels; syncarpous; placentation axile or basal.
Fruits: Achenes of follicles. pome or an etaerio of drupes or drupe.
Seed: The seed of the rose family is the non-endospermic seed.
Economic Importance of Rosaceae
Rosaceae has a great economic significance for humanity. It has broad economic importance in cold (temperate) zone or region. This angiospermic Rosaceae family is ranked third in the flowering families for commercial importance in the temperate region or zone.
Many eatable sweet fruits are obtained from the plants of family Rosaceae. Some significant eatable fruits are Apple scientifically known as Pyrus Malus, Almond is scientifically known as Prunus dulcis, Peach is scientifically known as Prunus Persica, Apricot scientifically is known as Prunus armeniaca, and Strawberry scientifically is known as Fragaria Ananassa, etc.
Ornamental Plants of Rosaceae family
A large innumerable of plants of family Rosaceae are used as ornamental plants in nature. They are cultivated in gardens for their very delightful and aromatic flowers. The genus Rosa is cultivated widely for the aromatic and decorative motive. It has been cultivating since former age or classical times. Its cultivated names are in hundreds and in thousands. Many other genera of family Rosaceae are also cultivated in gardens and parks for beautiful and scented flowers.
The branches of Hawthorn scientifically known as Crataegus are used as walking sticks and wood. The wood of some plants family Rosaceae is used for making tobacco pipes.
Commercial and medicinal uses of Rosaceae
The petals of some common rose plants are known as Ghulabs in some Asian countries like Pakistan. The petals of the rose plant have the following important uses:
  • These petals of the rose plant are used for making Gulkand.
  • These Gulabs are used for extraction of rose oil. This oil is used in perfumes for scented purposes.
  • These petals of the rose plant give Ark-Gulab on distillation with water. This Ark-Gulab is used for curing eye disease and for many other important purposes.
The pattern of distribution of Rosaceae
The Rosaceae family has about a hundred genera and two thousand species. It is distributed all over the world/globe. About twenty-nine genera and two hundred thirteen species of angiospermic family Rosaceae are present in Pakistan.
Common species of Rosaceae
There are following species belongs to this family:
  • Rose plant is scientifically known as Rosa Indica (rose).
  • Apple is scientifically known as Pyrus Malus (apple).
  • Peach is scientifically known as Prunus Persica (Peach).
  • Fragaria Vesca belongs to this family is commonly known as Strawberry.
  • Almond is scientifically known as Prunus Dulcis.
  • Apricot is scientifically known as Prunus Armeniaca.
  • Chokecherry scientifically named as Prunus Virginiana.
  • Plum is scientifically known as Prunus Species.
  • Sweet Cherry also belongs to Rosaceae family is scientifically named as Prunus Avium.

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