Phylum Loricifera – The Phylogenetic Tree Of Bacteria And Fungi



The phylum Loricifera, also known as the Glossary of Descriptive Terms of the Loricive Order is a newly described mammal phylum. Zoologists have recently classified over 14 different species of Loriciferans! Its first members have been described and named in just 1983. Among these, we find two new species: the Glossidilla cordifolia and the Loricia caespitosa. These two species together form the first families in the order.

Naming the family

In addition to naming the family, the authors describe the two diagnostic features of this newly recognized phylum which are significantly similar to each other but quite distinct from all other known vertebrates. Both consist of elongated ones apart from a short uvula and both lack a true tail. They also both bear numerous cells, which differ from each other in shape and appearance. The authors also describe a unique system of glandular cells that can be found both in the prothallium and at the base of the tongue in both members of the loricibacterium phylum. These cells bear a cell receptor, which is similar in shape and appearance to that of the human T-cells.


As described earlier, both members of this phylum are marine organisms, which means that they usually live in water. However, there is one difference between the two. The Glossidilla cordifolia usually forms a single thick girdle on the lower jaw of the fish while the loricibacterium forms a single small white girdle on the tongue. The authors call this the “microscopic tongue guard” more commonly known as the “microwave tongue guard.”


The loricibacterium, on the other hand, cannot grow in a natural state. It needs an external environment with specific physical characteristics in order to proliferate. In order to do so, the phylum loricifera has developed various physical barriers, such as a “cycloneuralian collar,” which is similar to a tire tube’s inner lining. This physical barrier helps to prevent the growth of other organisms. The researchers believe that this process helps to regulate the population of the loricibacterium.


Interestingly, another group of the microscopic organisms called “cysts” have been found to co-exist with loricibrarians in nature. These cysts are only a few nanometers in diameter and they cause the internal structure of the fish to change. In most cases, these cysts are trapped behind a scale bar that is characteristic of the phylum Eukaryota. The scale bar traps the tiny organism, which causes it to change its external appearance to that of a small bump or a grain. The phylum Eukaryota is composed of eukaryotic bacteria, protozoa, and the eukaryotic plastid.

National Institute of Health’s National Zoo

The study was undertaken by members of the National Institute of Health’s National Zoo Genome Biogenesis Institute. Researchers examined the relationship between loricibacterium and the eukaryotic cysts. They discovered that the cysts and the loricibrilus are indeed related, but not directly. They are, however, able to grow when there is growth of another type of microorganism called the prokaryote. When these two eukaryotic organisms are together, the process can be accelerated, leading to the development of new species of the phylum Loricifera. Interestingly, the new species tend to have the same external features as the loricibacterium, including the homicidal surface, the cycloneural cage, and the spiral membrane.

Appearance of the cysts

The researchers concluded that the appearance of the cysts and the production of growth factors contribute to the creation of the different species. The phylum loricifera contains two major classes, the meconium and the metronicellulina. The loricibrilus is a member of the metronicellulina phylum. The study found that the cysts that grow on the human abdomen may have formed due to the actions of the loricid enzymes.

Microbial world and supports

This study is significant since it contributes to our current knowledge of the microbial world and supports a rich foundation of biological taxonomy. Additionally, it helps to establish the pivotal role of the cytoplasmic organ in bacterial classification and suggests that the cytoplasmic organ is dynamic and may be very important in determining the true phylum and cladogenesis of the organisms. Studying the relationship between the phylum Loricifera and other organisms such as fungi and algae using various techniques such as whole genome sequencing and RNA sequencing has led to many revelations. The present study by van Noijen et al. (along with three other research teams) provides us with another great step forward in establishing the true taxonomic relationships among the organisms classified as phylum Loricifera.

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