Moraceae: Mulberry Family Characters, Floral formula, Floral Diagram And Economic Importance



Table Of Content:

  1. General Characters
  2. Floral Formula & Floral Diagram
  3. Economic Importance
  4. Distribution Pattern
  5. Common Species


Diagnostic characters

Habit: Mostly tree (a woody plant growing to a considerable height) herbs, shrubs or vines.

Roots: Taproot (a taproot is a large central root from which other roots sprouts).

Stem: Woody (hard in structure); gum exudes or releases from the stem.

Leaves: Petiolate (Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules.); alternate; simple; stipulate.

Inflorescence: Catkin or flypanthodium.

Flower: Small inconspicuous; bracteate and bracteolate; actinomorphic (radial symmetry); incomplete; unisexual (representing only one sex); hypogynous.

Kingdom: Plantae.

Phylum: Magnoliophyta.

Perianth: 4, in two whorls,

Stamens: In male flowers, 4-5 stamens are present; & opposite to the perianth.

Carpel: In female flowers, Carpels 2; Simple easy peasy, ovary superior; apocarpous; basal placentation.

Fruits: An achene, drupe or nuts. sometimes syconus.

Seed: Endospermic or non-endospermic.

Higher classification: Rosales.

Lower Classifications: Common fig, osage orange, jackfruit, figtrees,kozo and Brosimum etc.

Floral formula and floral diagram


Economic Importance 

Fruits: Some of the trees of this flowering plant angiosperm family yield edible fruits ( fit for human consumption ). Some of these are Mulberry bread fruit.

Used for shade: Some trees of this flowering plant angiosperm family are grown for their excellent shade that provide protection from the ultraviolet (UV) sun rays. These trees are peepal banyan Rubber: Fiscus Elastica (the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant) is cultivated for obtaining commercial/profitable rubber.

Cultivation of silkworm: The leaves of the mulberry plants are used for the cultivation of silkworms. Silkworms give rise to silk which has great commercial value/importance.

Manufacturing of paper: The bark of Paper mulberry is used for the manufacturing of paper.

Commercial fibers: Cannabis belongs to this family also known as marijuana yields commercial Fibers. These fibers are used in forming ropes.

Drugs: Some plants of this flowering plant angiosperm family give important drugs and narcotics ( narcotics produce analgesia ). Some of these are Charas & Bhang etc.

Paints and soaps: Some members of family moraceae yield oil. Like the seeds of Cannabis (hemps) yield oil which is used in paints and soaps.

Distribution pattern

The family Moraceae contains thirty eight genera and eleven hundred species. They are mainly widespread in tropical and subtropical zones/regions. Some species of the family Moraceae are also found in the temperate areas/climates.

Common species

  • Genus Morus (Mulberry)
  • Morus Alba ( White Mulberry)
  • Artocarpus Communis (breadfruit)
  • Ficus benjamina (Weeping fig)
  • Broussonetia Papyrifera (Paper mulberry)
  • Ficus Bengalensis (banyan)
  • Ficus Elasrica (Rubber plant)
  • Ficus Religiosa (Bodhi tree)

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